The Centre for Neurology Studies (CNS)

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Brain Vital Signs

Our Publications


Ighalo J, Kirby ED, Song X, Fickling SD, Pawlowski G, Ghosh Hajra S, Liu CC, Menon C, Shah SA, Knoefel F, D’Arcy RCN (2024). Brain vital signs as a quantitative measure of cognition: Methodological implementation in a care home environment. Heliyon. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2024.e28982

Jones KB, Frizzell T, Fickling SD, Pawlowski G, Brodie SM, Lakhani B, Venter J, D’Arcy RCN (2024). Brain vital sign monitoring of sleep deprivation detects situational cognitive impairment. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2024.1358551

Kirby, E. D., Andrushko, J. W., Rinat, S., D’Arcy, R. C. N., & Boyd, L. A. (2024). Investigating female versus male differences in white matter neuroplasticity associated with complex visuo-motor learning. Scientific reports, 14(1), 5951. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-024-56453-z


Kirby ED, Jones CB, Fickling SD, Pawlowski G, Brodie SM, Boyd LA, Venter J, Moser N, Kalsi-Ryan S, Medvedev G and D’Arcy RCN. (2023) Real world evidence of improved attention and cognition during physical therapy paired with neuromodulation: a brain vital signs study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 17:1209480. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2023.1209480


Etheridge T., Bostick G. P., Hoens A. M., Holly J., Ippersiel P., Bobos P., Arumugam V., Woods S., Gielen S., Woznowski-Vu A., &  Campbell N. (2022). Barriers to Physiotherapists’ Use of Professional Development Tools for Chronic Pain: A Knowledge Translation Study. 10.3138. 

Frizzell, T. O., Phull, E., Khan, M., Song, X., Grajauskas, L. A., Gawryluk, J., & D’Arcy, R. (2022). Imaging functional neuroplasticity in human white matter tracts. Brain structure & function, 227(1), 381–392.


Fickling*, S.D., Poel, D.N., Dorman, J.C., D’Arcy, R.C.N., & Munce, T.A. (2021). Subconcussive changes in youth football players: Objective evidence using brain vital signs and instrumented accelerometers. Brain Communications, fcab286.

Hajra, S. G., Liu, C. C., Fickling, S. D., Pawlowski, G. M., Song, X., & D’Arcy, R. (2021). Event Related Potential Signal Capture Can Be Enhanced through Dynamic SNR-Weighted Channel Pooling. Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 21(21), 7258.

D’Arcy, R., Sandhu, J. K., Marshall, S., & Besemann, M. (2021). Mitigating Long-Term COVID-19 Consequences on Brain Health. Frontiers in neurology12, 630986.

Carrick, F. R., Pagnacco, G., Azzolino, S. F., Hunfalvay, M., Oggero, E., Frizzell, T., Smith, C. J., Pawlowski, G., Campbell, N., Fickling, S. D., Lakhani, B., & D’Arcy, R. (2021). Brain Vital Signs in Elite Ice Hockey: Towards Characterizing Objective and Specific Neurophysiological Reference Values for Concussion Management. Frontiers in neuroscience15, 670563.

Fickling, S. D., Smith, A. M., Stuart, M. J., Dodick, D. W., Farrell, K., Pender, S. C., & D’Arcy, R. C. (2021). Subconcussive brain vital signs changes predict head-impact exposure in ice hockey players. Brain Communications3(2), fcab019.

McDonald, A. P., Rizzotti, R., Rivera, J. M., D’Arcy, R. C., Park, G., & Song, X. (2021). Toward improved homecare of frail older adults: A focus group study synthesizing patient and caregiver perspectives. Aging Medicine.

Sepehri, K., Song, X., Proulx, R., Ghosh Hajra, S.G., Dobberthien, B., Liu, C.C., D’Arcy, R.C.N., Murray, D., & Krauze, A.V. (2021). Towards effective machine learning in medical imaging analysis: A novel approach and expert evaluation of high-grade glioma ‘ground truth’simulation on MRI. International Journal of Medical Informatics146, 104348.

Tran, K. H., McDonald, A. P., D’Arcy, R. C., & Song, X. (2021). Contextual Processing and the Impacts of Aging and Neurodegeneration: A Scoping Review. Clinical Interventions in Aging16, 345.


D’Arcy, R., Greene, T., Greene, D., Frehlick, Z., Fickling, S. D., Campbell, N., Etheridge, T., Smith, C., Bollinger, F., Danilov, Y., Livingstone, A., Tannouri, P., Martin, P., & Lakhani, B. (2020). Portable neuromodulation induces neuroplasticity to re-activate motor function recovery from brain injury: a high-density MEG case study. Journal of neuroengineering and rehabilitation, 17(1), 158.

Fickling, S. D., Bollinger, F. H., Gurm, S., Pawlowski, G., Liu, C. C., Hajra, S. G., Song, X., & D’Arcy, R. (2020). Distant Sensor Prediction of Event-Related Potentials. IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering, 67(10), 2916–2924.

Fickling, S. D., Greene, T., Greene, D., Frehlick, Z., Campbell, N., Etheridge, T., Smith, C. J., Bollinger, F., Danilov, Y., Rizzotti, R., Livingstone, A. C., Lakhani, B., & D’Arcy, R. (2020). Brain Vital Signs Detect Cognitive Improvements During Combined Physical Therapy and Neuromodulation in Rehabilitation From Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Case Report. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 14, 347.

Liu, C. C., Ghosh Hajra, S., Fickling, S. D., Pawlowski, G., Song, X., & D’Arcy, R. (2020). Novel Signal Processing Technique for Capture and Isolation of Blink-Related Oscillations Using a Low-Density Electrode Array for Bedside Evaluation of Consciousness. IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering, 67(2), 453–463.

Liu, C. C., Ghosh Hajra, S., Pawlowski, G., Fickling, S. D., Song, X., & D’Arcy, R. (2020). Differential neural processing of spontaneous blinking under visual and auditory sensory environments: An EEG investigation of blink-related oscillations. NeuroImage, 218, 116879.

Smith, C. J., Livingstone, A., Fickling, S. D., Tannouri, P., Campbell, N., Lakhani, B., Danilov, Y., Sackier, J. M., & D’Arcy, R. (2020). Brain Vital Signs Detect Information Processing Differences When Neuromodulation Is Used During Cognitive Skills Training. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 14, 358.


Smith, A. M., Alford, P. A., Aubry, M., Benson, B., Black, A., Brooks, A., Burke, C., D’Arcy, R., Dodick, D., Eaves, M., Eickhoff, C., Erredge, K., Farrell, K., Finnoff, J., Fraser, D. D., Giza, C., Greenwald, R. M., Hoshizaki, B., Huston, J., Jorgensen, J., … Stuart, M. J. (2019). Proceedings from the Ice Hockey Summit III: Action on Concussion. Current sports medicine reports, 18(1), 23–34.

Fickling , S.D., Bolinger , F., Pawlowski , G., Ghosh Hajra , S., Liu , C.C., Song, X., D’Arcy, R.C.N. (2019). Distant sensor detection and enhancement of brain vital sign signals. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering.

Fickling, S.D., Liu, C.C., Ghosh Hajra , S., Song, X., D’Arcy, R.C.N. (2019). Good data? The EEG quality index for automated assessment of signal quality. 2019 IEEE 10th Annual Information Technology, Electronics and Mobile Communication Conference (IEMCON).

Fickling , S.D., Smith, A.M., Pawlowski , G., Ghosh Hajra , S., Liu , C.C., Farrell, K., Jorgensen, J., Song, X., Stuart, M.J., D’Arcy, R.C.N. (2019). Brain vital signs detect concussion-related neurophysiological impairment in ice-hockey. Brain, 142(2), 255-262. Editor’s Choice.

Frehlick, Z., Lakhani, B., Fickling, S., Livingstone, A., Danilov, Y., Sackier, J., & D’Arcy, R.C.N. (2019). Human translingual neurostimulation alters resting brain activity in high-density EEG. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation. E-pub ahead of print.

Ghosh Hajra , S., Liu , C.C., Pawlowski , G., Fickling , S.D., Song, X., & D’Arcy, R.C.N. (2019). Enhancing event related response capture for dynamic SNR-weighted signal augmentation for brain vital sign monitoring. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering. Accepted.

Liu , C.C., Ghosh Hajra , S., Song, X., Doesburg, S., Cheung, T.P.L., & D’Arcy, R.C.N. (2019). Cognitive loading via mental arithmetic modulates effects of blink-related oscillations on precuneus and ventral attention network regions. Human Brain Mapping, 40(2); 377-393.

Magnuson , J.R., Peatfield, N.A., Fickling , S., Nunes , A.S., Christie , G., Vakorin, V., D’Arcy, R.C.N., Ribary, U., Iarocci, G., Moreno, S., & Doesburg, S.M. (2019). Electrophysiology of inhibitory control in the context of emotion processing in children with autism spectrum disorder. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 12.

Pawlowski , G., Ghosh Hajra , S., Fickling , S., Liu , C.C., Song, X., Robinovitch, S., Doesburg, S.M., & D’Arcy, R.C.N. (2019). Brain vital signs: Expanding from the auditory to visual modality. Frontiers in Neuroscience. 18.

Smith, A.N., Alford, P.A., Aubry, M., Benson, B., Black, A., Brooks, A., Burke, C., D’Arcy, R.C.N., Dodick, D., Eaves, M., Eickhoff, C., Erredge, K., Farrell, K., Finnoff, J., Fraser, D., Giza, C., Greenwald, R., Hanzel, M., Hoshizaki, B., Huston, J., Jorgenson, J., Joyner, M., Krause, D., LaVoi, N., Leaf, M., Leddy, J., Leopold, J., Margarucci, K., Margulies, S., Mihalik, J., Munce, T., Ouer, A., Podein, S., Prideaux, C., Roberts, W.O., Shen, F., Soma, D., Tabrum, M., Stuart, M.B., Wethe, J., Whitehead, J., Wiese-Bjornstal, D., & Stuart, M.J. (2019). Ice hockey summit III proceedings: Action on concussion. Current Sport Medicine Reports, 18(1); 23-34.

Zhang , X., D’Arcy, R.C.N., Menon, C. (2019). Scoring upper-extremity motor function from EEG using artificial intelligence. Journal of Neural Engineering, 16 (3); 036013.


Fleck-Prediger , C., Ghosh Hajra , S., Liu , C.C., Gray, S., Petley, L., Weaver, D.F., Gopinath , S., Yee , E., Dick, B.D., & D’Arcy, R.C.N. (2018). Point-of-care brain injury evaluation of conscious awareness: Wide scale deployment of portable HCS EEG evaluation. Neuroscience of Consciousness, 4(1), niy011.

Ghosh Hajra , S., Liu , C.C., Song, X., Fickling , S.D., Cheung, T.P.L. & D’Arcy, R.C.N. (2018). Accessing knowledge of the ‘here and now’: Initial evidence of N400-like electromagnetic responses in orientation processing. Journal of Neural Engineering, 16(1).

Ghosh Hajra , S., Liu , C.C., Song, X., Fickling , S.D., Cheung, T.P., & D’Arcy, R.C.N. (2018). Multimodal characterization of the semantic N400 response within a rapid evaluation brain vital sign framework. Journal of Translational Medicine, 16:151.


Liu , C.C.; Ghosh Hajra , S., Cheung, T.P., Song, X., & D’Arcy, R.C.N. (2017). Spontaneous blinks activate the precuneus: Characterizing blink-related oscillations using magnetoencephalography. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 11, 489.


D’Arcy, R.C.N., Lindsay, D.S., Song, X., Gawryluk, J.R., Greene, D., Mayo , C., Ghosh Hajra , S., Mandziuk, L., Mathieson, J., & Greene T. (2016). Functional recovery in severe traumatic brain injury beyond established limits. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 31(5), 50-58. E-publication ahead of print in 2015.

Ghosh-Hajra , S., Liu , C., Song, X., Fickling , S., Pawlowski , G. Jorgensen, J.K., Smith, A.M., Schnaider-Beeri, M., Van Den Broek, R., Rizzotti, R., Fisher, K., & D’Arcy, R.C.N. (2016). Developing brain vital signs: Initial assessment of device and methods for monitoring brain function changes. Frontiers of Neuroscience, Brain Imaging Methods. 10:211.


Fleck-Prediger , C., Ghosh-Hajra , S., Dick, B.D., Gray, S., Petley, L., Liu , C., D’Arcy, R.C.N. (2015). Clinical applications of the Halifax Consciousness Scanner (HCS): Tracking recovery in a severely brain injured patient. International Neurotrauma Letter. 37, online.

Parvar, H., R., Sculthorpe-Petley, L., Satel, J., Boshra , D’Arcy, R.C.N., Trappenberg, T.P. (2015). Detection of event-related potentials in individual subjects using support vector machines. Brain Informatics, 2 (1), 1-12.

Sculthorpe-Petley, L., Liu , C., Ghosh-Hajra , S., Boshra , R., Satel, J., Trappenberg, T.P., D’Arcy, R.C.N. (2015). A rapid event-related potential (ERP) method for point-of-care evaluation of brain function: using ERPs: Development of the Halifax Consciousness Scanner. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 245, 64-72.


D’Arcy, R.C.N. (2011). Health care goes mobile. The Mark. Sas, J. (Ed). Toronto, Ontario: The Mark News.

D’Arcy, R.C.N., Ghosh-Hajra, S., Liu, C., Sculthorpe, L., & Weaver, D.F. (2011). Towards brain first-aid: A diagnostic device for conscious awareness. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering. 58(3), 750-754. Early access IEEE Xplore.


Gawryluk , J.R. & D’Arcy, R.C.N. (2010). Electroencephalography: Basic concepts and brain applications. Handbook of Physics in Medicine and Biology. R. Splinter (Ed.). Taylor and Francis.

Gawryluk , J.R., D’Arcy, R.C.N., Connolly, J.F., & Weaver, D.F. (2010). Improving the clinical assessment of consciousness with advances in electrophysiology and neuroimaging techniques. BMC Neurology. 10(1): 11.

Versteeg , V., Marchand, Y., Mazerolle , E.L., & D’Arcy, R.C.N. (2010). Profiling brain function: Spatiotemporal characterization of normal and abnormal visual evoked potential. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 190(1), 95-105.

2006 and before

Connolly, J.F., Marchand, Y., Major, A., & D’Arcy, R.C.N. (2006). Event-related brain potentials as a measure of performance on WISC-III and WAIS-R NI Similarities sub-tests. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 28(8), 1327-1345.

D’Arcy, R.C.N., Service, E., Connolly, J.F., & Hawco , C.S. (2005). The influences of increased working memory load on semantic neural systems: A high-resolution event-related brain potential study. Cognitive Brain Research, 22 (2), 177-191.

D’Arcy, R.C.N., Connolly, J.F., Service, E., Hawco , C.S., & Houlihan, M.E. (2004). Separating phonological and semantic processing in auditory sentence processing: A high-resolution event-related brain potential study. Human Brain Mapping, 22 (1), 40-51.

D’Arcy, R.C.N., Marchand, Y., Eskes, G.A., Harrison, E.R, Major, A., Phillips, S.J., & Connolly, J.F. (2003). Electrophysiological assessment of language function following stroke. Clinical Neurophysiology, 114 (4), 662-672.

Marchand, Y., D’Arcy, R.C.N., & Connolly, J.F. (2002). Linking neurophysiological and neuropsychological measures for aphasia assessment. Clinical Neurophysiology, 113(11), 1715-1722. Editorial.

Connolly, J.F., Service, E., D’Arcy, R.C.N., Kujala, A., & Alho, A. (2001). Phonological aspects of word recognition as revealed by high-resolution spatio-temporal brain mapping. NeuroReport, 12(2), 237-243.

Connolly, J.F., & D’Arcy, R.C.N. (2000). Innovations in neuropsychological assessment using event-related brain potentials. Invited review. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 37(1), 31-47.

Connolly, J.F., D’Arcy, R.C.N., Newman R.L. & Kemps , R. (2000). The application of cognitive event-related brain potentials in language-impaired individuals: Review and case studies. Invited review. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 38(1), 55-70.

D’Arcy, R.C.N., Connolly, J.F., & Crocker , S.F. (2000). Latency shifts in the N2b component track phonological deviations in spoken words. Clinical Neurophysiology, 111(1), 40-44.

D’Arcy, R.C.N., Connolly, J.F., & Eskes, G.A. (2000). Evaluation of reading comprehension with neuropsychological and event-related brain potential (ERP) methods. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 6, 552-563.

Mateer C.A., & D’Arcy, R.C.N. (2000). Current concepts in assessment and management. S. Raskin & C. Mateer (Eds.). Neuropsychological Management of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. New York: Oxford University Press.

Connolly, J.F., Major, A.M., Allen, S.L., & D’Arcy, R.C.N. (1999). Performance on WISC-III and WAIS-R NI vocabulary subtests assessed with event-related brain potentials: An innovative method of assessment. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology. 21(4), 444-464.

D’Arcy, R.C.N., & Connolly, J.F. (1999). An event-related brain potential study of receptive speech comprehension using a modified Token Test. Neuropsychologia, 37(13), 1477-1489.